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Factors contributing to product experience: The cases of 'warmth' and 'freshness'

Anna Fenko , Hendrik N.J. Schifferstein , Paul Hekkert

Designers can manipulate physical properties of a product: they can change its colour, texture and smell. But can we also predict people’s product experiences such as ‘freshness’ and ‘warmth’? We collected 10 smells and 10 colours for freshness, and 10 textures and 10 colours for warmth. Participants evaluated the freshness of 20 stimuli for a softdrink and a dishwashing liquid, and the warmth of 20 stimuli for a scarf and a tray. The results showed that sensory experiences (freshness and warmth) include affective components (pleasantness and comfort) and depend on the product. Our findings imply that ‘freshness’ and ‘warmth’ are complex product experiences that integrate sensory, affective, and semantic components. To predict users’ reactions to products we need to take into account all three components of these experiences.


sensory product experience, freshness, warmth